History of the Nation Texas, Part 2

by admin on November 14, 2016

The “History of the Nation Texas” does not end with annexation to the USA any more than Estonia or Lithuania’s histories end with their being “annexed” to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Those Baltic republics were recognized as restored to their original sovereign status 50 years later, by an international tribunal.

Texas is unique in that it is the only State to join the USA as a nation. It was not a territory; it was not purchased from another nation. Texas as a Nation joined the USA by treaty30. Only the original 13 colonies come close to similar standing.

As we move historically from the 1850’s forward, it is imperative to realize that during this timeframe, the individual sovereignty of the particular states was the norm. Each person seemed to think of themselves as being identified by their State citizenship rather than by a National citizenship. Loyalty was to their “homeland”, which was to the “land” where their “home” was located. This explains why Robert E. Lee, though educated at West Point Military Academy and offered command of the Union Army, accepted command of the Confederate Army. The explanation, in his own words being, “Save in the defense of my native State, I never desire again to draw my sword.”31

Understand that the time frame of the 1860’s requires careful attention to the words and intention of those present at the time. To this end, we must read carefully the actual reason given by the Texas Legislature for Texas’ involvement in the American War of 1860 to 1865:

“JOINT RESOLUTION RELATIVE TO COERCION”

“Be it resolved by the legislature of the state of Texas, that in view of the exigencies of the times, we deem it proper to declare, that when the sovereign states of this confederacy entered into the compact of the Union, they delegated to the federal government no power to compel, by force of arms, obedience by the states to the federal authority; but on the contrary, such power was expressly denied. That the employment, therefore, of force by the federal government to compel any state of this Union to perform its obligations under the federal compact, or to compel a state, against the will of its people, to remain a member of the confederacy, is in violation of the constitution, a dangerous usurpation of power, destructive of the right of free government, and fatal to the existence of the Union itself, which, formed of equal and independent sovereignties, cannot be, as between conquering states and subjugated provinces. That should (as we have serious reason to apprehend may be in the present condition of the Union) the federal government attempt to coerce any of our sister states of the south, by force of arms, into subjection to federal rule, we assure such states of the sympathies of our people, and that we shall make common cause with them in resisting, by all means and to the last extremity, such unconstitutional violence and tyrannical usurpation of power.

Passed February 1, A.D. 1861

M. D. K. TAYLOR, Speaker House Reps. EDWARD CLARK, President Senate32

II. The American War of 1860 to 1865

As the 1860’s began, the USA was a confederation of independent, sovereign States. The States had formed the Union, not vice versa. Texas as a sovereign Nation-State clearly stated its reason for withdrawing from the Union in the “Joint Resolution Relative to Coercion” (above) and forced by “the federal government attempt to coerce any of our sister states of the south, by force of arms, into subjection to federal rule”, exercised its Constitutional right to withdraw from the Union. Once again, in 1861, Texas existed as an Independent Nation. As such, it chose to confederate with other States that understood and adhered to the founding principles of a representative republic form of government.33

Of all the tragedies in American history, the 1860-1865 internal war between the States of America caused the greatest suffering and loss to the people of north America. Massive loss of life, liberty, property, dignity, and basic human rights occurred as the federal Army invaded the Southern States. Union soldiers not only attacked ‘by force of arms’, but destroyed the crops, animals, bridges and infrastructure of the Confederates during the War. Texas was not exempted from the senseless destruction and exploitation by Union soldiers assisted by “carpet baggers” and “scalawags” from the north, who confiscated most of what was left: homes, businesses, government buildings, and of course all the cotton grown and harvested by great human labors of the southerners. It took Texas another decade to get back on its feet, because it was hampered by northerners exploiting or micro-managing local initiatives and efforts.34

For the Confederate States of America (the South) it had been a defensive fight against invasion. Accordingly, Texas kept all its militia in defensive positions, and did not fight outside the boundaries of the Confederacy.35   But all military officers in Texas were forbidden by the United States to vote or even hold public office ever again. Martial Rule by Union military put an end to the Texas legislature, the Executive branch and the judiciary, and even down to the local level. Union officers appointed inexperienced turncoats or northerners to carry out the orders of the District General, who basically had all executive, legislative and judicial authority vested in one US Officer.36

In December 1863 when President Lincoln proposed the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction or the “ten percent plan”, the powerful legislators from a few northeastern States didn’t like it. So in February 1864, the Wade-Davis Bill for Reconstruction was proposed by congress, Lincoln refused to sign their punitive legislation into law, killing the bill with the “pocket veto”.37

After the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox, VA. and Abraham Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, however, the US “Congress had the upper hand in shaping Federal policy toward the defeated South and imposed the harsher reconstruction requirements first advocated in the Wade-Davis Bill.”38 When Vice President Andrew Johnson became President, the Northern Congressmen again proposed abusive Reconstruction (which turned out to be a Federal euphemism for “subjugation and exploitation).” President Johnson vetoed the bill, but Congress overrode the veto to produce the Military Reconstruction Plan.39,40

The Fourteenth Amendment

In order to complete an unconstitutional inversion of the sovereign States that had been served by a weak Federal government, into weak states treated as subsidiaries of a power-hungry sovereign National government unaccountable to those states, a Fourteenth Amendment was written by the United States government. However, its ratification votes by the states fell far short of the two-thirds majority required by their Constitution41. Even the Northern States’ legislators could see this Amendment would end up destroying their own State sovereignty and harming their people. Unwilling to defer to the clear will of the people and their representatives, the shrunken U.S. Congress passed rules that the southern Confederate states could not have their senators and representatives seated in Congress, until their state ratified the Fourteenth Amendment.42 This arrogant arm-twisting brought in more votes, but the count was still short of the two-thirds required. Finally, during a Christmas recess of Congress, powerful leaders in Washington DC “directed” their Secretary of State to declare in writing that the Fourteenth Amendment had been ratified.43   Instead of freeing the slaves, as it pretended to do, this un-ratified Amendment enslaved the free.

Texas a state in the U.S.A.

Texas was required to write a new constitution in order to be re-admitted into the Union in 1870. Texas already had a new state constitution in 1845 when it was annexed. Why was the 1845 Constitution not allowed in 1870?  Because it was the constitution of a sovereign State, in a cooperative alliance with other sovereign States.44 The intent of the new rulers of the emerging US empire was becoming very clear. They had postured as needing to defend Texas from Mexico in 1846, sending United States troops to the Rio Grande, the south border of Texas. But there was no attack by Mexico and instead they attacked Mexico, marching their troops all the way to Mexico City. They held the Mexican government hostage until they signed a treaty ceding to the United States, Mexico’s lands from Texas all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean! The leaders of Texas realized their hasty “Annexation” to the U.S. was intended by the US empire to be merely a “pawn”, a land bridge enabling the US to attack and conquer Mexico. This had been a plot to rule the North American continent “from sea to shining sea”.45

The people of Texas today are ruled by a State of Texas government that is controlled by the unaccountable United States government in Washington DC. Texas is still being exploited in this 21st century, as the US empire takes much more revenue from Texas than it returns to Texas.46  Aggravating that issue is that much of that revenue is spent by the US empire on weapons to kill and maim people in far-away nations. The Republic of Texas has never fought an aggressive war and opposes such aggression by the US.

The US empire has succeeded in militarizing the police in Texas,47 and in perverting all the courts, judges, prisons and jails in Texas into a huge revenue-generating scam. As a result, there has been a systematic persecution and intimidation of people in Texas who speak out in protesting this mockery of justice. This enormous injustice must end.

Agreement between DLA and Texas

The Texian people have been made essentially “stateless”48 by the coordinated efforts of the US empire, the State of Texas government, and local law enforcement agencies, along with the newspapers and television media that spouts the news releases of the entities just mentioned. The Republic of Texas elected government has been hounded, harassed, threatened, incarcerated and impoverished by systematic attacks on our meetings, beliefs, possessions, and character. People will only tolerate so much before they finally revolt. The UN was created to minimize that kind of violence. Who will step up to support our cause?

Footnotes

30. The term “treaty” has regularly been used as a generic term embracing all instruments binding at international law concluded between international entities, regardless of their formal designation. http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Definitions.pdf

31.  History.com, 2009, Lee Resigns from U.S. Army, accessed September 5, 2016. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/lee-resigns-from-u-s-army

32.http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe17/rbpe176/17601000/rbpe17601000.db&recNum=0&itemLink=r?ammem/rbpebib:@OR%28@field%28AUTHOR+@3%28Texas++Legislature++%29%29+@field%28OTHER+@3%28Texas++Legislature++%29%29%29&linkText=0

33.  http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_csa.asp

34(a). “U.S. Army General William Tecumseh Sherman’s “March to the Sea” in 1864 during the American Civil War destroyed the resources required for the South to make war. He is considered one of the first military commanders to deliberately and consciously use total war as a military tactic. Also, General Phillip Sheridan’s stripping of the Shenandoah Valley was considered “total war.” Ulysses S. Grant was the general to initiate the practice in the Civil War”.  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Total_war

34(b). The federal Union declared war on its own people. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=012/llsl012.db&recNum=1311

35. http://www.bourlandcivilwar.com/IntroductionVolumeII.html “This study includes the transcript of existing primary references — including misspellings — found in the Texas Library and Archives that pertain to the militia organizations of the Texas counties that border the Red River, however some records are designated by their “brigade” in lieu of “county;” therefore, it is essential that the brigades be defined.  On December 25, 1861 the Texas Legislature divided the state into 33 militia brigade districts for the purpose of organizing Texas State Troops (TST) or Texas Militia (TM) for local defense under the command of the Governor of Texas, not the Confederacy.  Each district was ordered by law to form a brigade of volunteers within its borders. These volunteers were not allowed to go outside Texas state boundaries as part of the Confederate Army but were allowed to exit to rendezvous or in hot pursuit of marauding Indians.  Thus they were home guards only.”

36.Military District #5: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qzf01

37 https://worldhistoryproject.org/1863/12/8/lincoln-attempts-reconstruction-with-the-ten-percent-plan

38.”http://m.american-historama.org/1866-1881-reconstruction-era/reconstruction-acts-1867.htm

39. Proclamation #42: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=013/llsl013.db&recNum=794

40. Military District #5: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qzf01

41.  www.sweetliberty.org/fourteenth.amend.htm

42.  http://www.constitution.org/14ll/no14th.htm

43. http://www.supremelaw.org/ref/14amrec/14amrec.htm

44.  https://tarltonapps.law.utexas.edu/constitutions/texas1845

45. http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/war/wars_end_guadalupe.html 

46(a). http://www.governing.com/gov-data/state-tax-revenue-data.html   Governing, Texas Revenue Tax Collections for 2012,  $48,596,548,000.00. First Graph, Input Texas

46(b). http://www.thedailybeast.com/galleries/2011/04/04/state-finances.html The Daily Beast, Texas paid $220.53 billion, received, avg. $202.04 billion, per tax dollar paid, avg. $0.92. First page, Scroll to Texas.

46(c). https://www.nationalpriorities.org/budget-basics/federal-budget-101/spending/ Federal Spending, National Priorities Project, Second Graph

47(a). https://www.aclu.org/feature/war-comes-home  ACLU, Departments use these wartime weapons in everyday policing, Para 2, sent 3

47(b). http://kut.org/post/texas-schools-get-military-gear-through-federal-program KUT 90.5, Austin NPR, Texas school districts dominate the list of those receiving military equipment — including firearms and armored vehicles — through a federal initiative, Para 1, Sentence 1

47(c). Shawn Musgrave of Muckrock, Public Records Request from Texas DPS.  Appears to be the year 2013.  Pentagon’s 1033 program the following 4 links:

https://www.muckrock.com/foi/texas-109/1033-mou-and-annual-inventory-form-texas-department-of-public-safety-texas-rangers-13004/  Email correspondents of request

https://d3gn0r3afghep.cloudfront.net/foia_files/14-3466_14-08-28_letter_to_requestor.pdf  Letter to Requester

https://d3gn0r3afghep.cloudfront.net/foia_files/STATE_PROPERTY_BOOK.XLSX Property sold to Texas cities, counties

https://d3gn0r3afghep.cloudfront.net/foia_files/TEXAS_DLA_MOU.pdf

48. https://ejas.revues.org/11117 & www.cmsny.org/the-stateless-in-the-united-states/

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The History of the Nation Texas

by admin on September 29, 2016

Part 1

Many books have been written about Texas; most seem to embellish events or characters to entertain the readers. It is time for a fully authenticated, foot-noted, consistent history of Texas to be made available to Texans, Americans and the rest of the world. It is now possible to study newspapers published contemporary with the events all during the 180 years of Texas’ existence due to electronic scanning and posting on the internet. Official journals written by the presidents of Texas, and books written by scholarly visitors in the 1800s are readily available online. Hundreds of hours of such research and compiling accurate records stand behind this production, and we gladly offer it to those who love Texas and to those who may feel a bit jealous of Texas and its many advantages. Possibly the best famous comment was written by John Steinbeck who wrote The Grapes of Wrath:

“Texas is a state of mind. Texas is an obsession. Above all, Texas is a nation in every sense of the word….  A Texan outside of Texas is a foreigner.” ―John Steinbeck

What is a People?

The identification and recognition of “a people” is a primary issue in International Law.  A people recognized as a nation (in the natural, organic sense) is a driving force in customary relations between nations (as political entities).

In Texas today, there is a confusion concerning this simple concept. During the historical course of events that we have documented herein, the nationality of “Texian” has become essentially extinct. For example, Estonia was extinguished for 50 years, but then was restored to nationhood through the international community.

But, by the grace of God, there are some “Texians” who will not go quietly to extinction. We will continue working to secure the international recognition of the people of the independent Republic of Texas.

We begin this book by revealing the nationality of the Texian people. We will show who we are as “Texians” by looking to primary sources, original records, early historians, and by learning applicable laws both domestic and international.

Identity and Character of the Texian People

History shows many attempts during the 1600s, 1700s and 1800s to start settlements in the huge, wild land called Texas1. But they all failed, from many causes. Attacks by indigenous tribes, drought or famine, freezing, cholera, military-political abuse, and other setbacks caused all prior settlements to fail and disappear2.

When the new United States of Mexico formally invited Americans from the north to move and settle in Texas, offering them free leagues of land, the hardiest, self-sufficient, brave, skilled and freedom-loving Americans took great risks at their own expense and made their way down to Texas on their own or in small caravans or steamboats.3 Three “people groups” began to associate on the land of Texas, finding their common love of the land, desire for liberty, pursuit of opportunity and Christian faith compatible and cohesive. People from southern Mexico came up to “El Norte” (Tejas), as well as people from the Deep South states and the Greater Appalachian region of the U.S.A.; all came to Texas seeking liberty and opportunity. These three “people groups”, for mutual survival and benefit, together became Texians.4

Once they arrived they had to apply to an Empresario (a for-profit contractor of the Mexican government) for the title to their land. They soon discovered that their Empresario was hard to find, busy living the high life from his privileged position, and the title took months or longer to be produced. So some just had to settle on an unclaimed tract of land and build a log cabin by hand to protect their family. The single men were required by contract to marry a Mexican woman; all had to become Roman Catholic and Mexican citizens, and learn Spanish, which they did. Today they would be called expatriates from the U.S.A.5

But it got much harder. If a tangible injustice was done to them, they sometimes had to travel up to 1,000 miles to a court in Mexico City in order to present their case. Travel was on foot or horseback, with robbers and savages along the trail. Military protection was not provided by Mexico in this land north of the Rio Grande.6

Coahuila was a northern State in the confederation of Mexican States. It was expanded to include Texas in 1824, and became the State of “Coahuila y Tejas”. Written provisions in their constitution allowed Texas to separate and become a State on its own, when it attained enough population and self-governing structure.7

Mexico as a nation was not known for insisting on rule-of-law governing as practiced by the early American colonies that became the sovereign States of America. This hampered and frustrated the new settlers from the north. Equal justice was hard to find, because some influential Mexicans resented the increasing presence and boldness of the new settlers.  Eventually with all the delays and injustice severely hampering their civilizing of the new Land, the Texians began meeting to work out ways to solve the intractable problems. Many wanted to secede lawfully from Coahuila (but not from Mexico), as allowed in their constitution, because Coahuila’s bureaucracy was too far away and too self-interested to deal with Texas’ problems.8

But all was not well in Mexico City either, for the Texian homesteaders. General Santa Ana was a national hero and head of the Army with political ambitions, who was elected President of Mexico.9

In 1836 Santa Ana led his large army across the Rio Bravo (today’s Rio Grande) and attacked the settlers in Texas. As they heard about his murderous attacks they packed up and fled, leaving all the work they had put into their homesteads. Writers of the day called it the Runaway Scrape. They fled toward Louisiana, the closest safe refuge outside Mexican jurisdiction.10 The delegates of the people of Texas in general convention unanimously passed and signed the Texas Declaration of Independence, March 2, 1836.11

A hastily assembled provisional defense force led by Colonel Travis was sent to a tiny Spanish mission on the main trail from Mexico into Texas, to delay Santa Ana’s army at the Alamo, where San Antonio, Texas is today. Although outnumbered one hundred to one, these defenders withstood many attacks but were finally overrun and all were slaughtered.12

On Palm Sunday March 27, 1836 at the town of Goliad, all 342 Texians being protected by Col. James W. Fannin, Jr. were massacred by Santa Ana’s command, even though they had formally surrendered.13

General Sam Houston was named head of a provisional Texas army, and he had the army retreat across each of several rivers that empty into the Gulf of Mexico and encamped on the safe side, buying time for the refugees on foot to stay ahead of Santa Ana’s armies. Eventually his army crossed a bayou leading into the San Jacinto River, and set up their defenses. Santa Ana’s armies arrived and encamped on the opposite side of that bayou, and waited for reinforcements to arrive, which they did.14

Before dusk, Santa Ana had his soldiers eat and take a siesta. But General Houston had his mounted cavalry quietly go out and cross the bayou on the flanks of the Mexican army. His soldiers quietly waded across the bayou pushing log rafts with two small cannons on them. On Houston’s signal, the cannons fired grapeshot in a crossfire and the cavalry and soldiers charged the Mexican armies. In 18 minutes the Mexican armies were defeated and fleeing for their lives.15

One of Houston’s scouts found General Santa Ana fleeing in a private’s uniform, and brought him back to General Houston. The next day Santa Ana signed a Treaty at Velasco16 agreeing to cede all Texas lands to the inhabitants of those lands perpetually, and to never invade Texas again. That treaty was also signed by the leader of the provisional government of the new nation, the Republic of Texas. The Texas government quickly surveyed and marked the boundaries of this huge new nation.17

In the ensuing years Texas formed treaties and set up embassies in several other nations, and was an active part of the growing community of nations.18,19 But in 1845 the United States congress passed a resolution to “annex Texas.” Even back then, nations were annexing “territories” that had no government. But one nation did not “annex” another nation; they either merged by treaty or were taken by conquest.20 There were serious irregularities in the subsequent process, but in January 1846 the United States flag was hoisted and Texas became one of the sovereign states of the federation21 called the United States of America.22

The Republic of Texas was annexed into the Union as having the same sovereign prerogatives as the original 13 States23 — Texas specifically retained its sovereignty and all its lands and its debts. The U.S.A. obligated itself to protect the borders of Texas, negotiate any contention about the boundaries of Texas, and guaranteed that Texas would always have a “republic” form of government (as contrasted to a democracy, oligarchy or dictatorship)24.

The United States of America began violating the terms and obligations of the annexation agreement soon after January 1846, and contention grew between Texas and the over-reaching U.S.A. federal government. Then the U.S.A. used Texas as a land bridge for the Mexican-American War. Understand that Texas was frontier country, and communication was slow and uncertain. Few lived in cities; most Texian people worked their section of rural land and did not get much news. So they knew little of the violations by the U.S.A.  The Annexation Agreement25 clearly stated that Texas could choose to “sell some of its lands in order to form up to four new states.” But in 1849 the U.S.A. Congress proposed a Compromise that would tear away huge parts of the lands belonging to Texas and form five new states planned by U.S.A. congressmen. The Texas Governor objected strongly to this overt violation of the Annexation Agreement, but was ignored by the U.S.A. Later a U.S.A. court awarded ten million dollars to Texas as reparations for that huge violation of the Annexation Treaty obligations.26

The original Constitution of the United States of America was a Treaty between the thirteen original sovereign American States, delegating only a limited, defined set of powers to a tiny Federal government, to handle defense and mediate issues between any of the several States.  Through the 1850s the northern industrial States instituted “a system of revenue and disbursements, by which an undue proportion of the burden of taxation has been imposed upon the South, and an undue proportion of its proceeds appropriated to the North”.27

This imbalance was driving the south into deeper poverty, and the southern senators and representatives tried repeatedly to balance the revenues, but were rebuffed in Congress. The Union would not even negotiate with the South.28 As a last resort, the southern congressmen got up and walked out of the U.S.A. Congress in a form of boycott. The whole issue escalated until the southern States formed a new Confederation and seceded from the north-controlled Union.29

Footnotes

(1.) Christopher Long, Corpus Christi, TX, Handbook of Texas Online, (accessed July 25, 2016), http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hdc03

(2.) William Kennedy, Texas: The Rise, Progress and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, (1841). https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth2389/  “On the 24th of July, 1684, La Salle sailed from La Rochelle, with four vessels and two hundred and eighty persons (of whom one hundred were soldiers), and everything requisite for founding a settlement. Deceived in the reckoning by the currents of the gulf, the expedition failed in reaching its destination — the mouths of the Mississippi, where it was intended to establish a colony. Having sailed unconsciously to the southward, one hundred and twenty leagues beyond the entrance of that river, La Salle landed, on the 18th of February, 1685, at what is Matagorda of the present day. Here he took formal possession of the country in the name of his sovereign, after the fashion of the times, built and garrisoned a small fort on the Guadalupe, and acquired some importance for the post of St. Louis.”

(3). Margaret Swett Henson, “Anglo-American Colonization”, Handbook of Texas Online, accessed July 25, 2016,  https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/uma01

(4). Collin Woodward, American Nations: A history of the eleven rival regional cultures of North America, 31 (2011).

(5) Wallace L. McKeehan, Empresario Contracts in the Colonization of Texas 1825-1834, Sons of Dewitt Colony Texas, accessed July 25, 2016, http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/empresarios.htm

(6) Earnest Wallace, David M. Vigness & George B. Ward, Documents of Texas History, 76 – 80 (2nd ed., 1994). https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/89/  “Our ‘supreme tribunal of justice’ holds its sessions upward of seven hundred miles distant from our central population; and that distance is greatly enlarged, and sometimes made impassable, by the casualties incident to a ‘mail’ conducted by a single horseman through a wilderness, often infested by vagrant and murderous Indians.”

(7) Ibid., pg.61-62. https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/74/

(8) Ibid., pg. 76 – 80 https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/89/

(9) Wilfred H. Callcott, “Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed July 25, 2016 https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fsa29

(10) Carolyn Callaway Covington, “Runaway Scrape,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed July 25, 2016, https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pfr01

(11) Earnest Wallace, David M. Vigness & George B. Ward, Documents of Texas History, 98 – 99 (2nd ed., 1994) https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/111/

(12) Stephen L. Hardin, “Alamo, Battle of The,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed July 25, 2016, https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qea02

(13) Harbert Davenport and Craig H. Roell, “Goliad Massacre,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed August 24, 2016, https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/qeg02

(14) Travis Tubbs, The Texas Army, accessed July 25, 2016, http://www.texasarmy.org/army

(15) Wallace L. McKeehan,  THE BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO, SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS 1997-2013, accessed July 25, 2016, https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/batsanjacinto.htm

(16) The Treaty of Velasco, TSLAC, page last modified March 28, 2016 https://www.tsl.texas.gov/treasures/republic/velasco-01.html : See The Treaty of Velasco (Private), May 14, 1836  at https://www.tsl.texas.gov/treasures/republic/velasco-private-1.html

(17) William Kennedy, Texas: The Rise, Progress and Prospects of the Republic of Texas, Vol.1, 10 (1841). https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth2389/

(18) Negotiating Peace with Mexico, TSLAC, page last modified March 28, 2016, https://www.tsl.texas.gov/treasures/republic/peace.html “General James Hamilton’s career as diplomat under Lamar was a successful one. He negotiated a treaty of commerce with the Netherlands on September 15, 1840, and three treaties with Great Britain: one of commerce and navigation, one providing for British mediation in the Texas-Mexico peace negotiations, and one calling for the suppression of slave trade.”

(19) Joseph W. Schmitz, “Diplomatic Relations of the Republic of Texas,” Handbook of Texas Online. “Henderson, secretary of state, was sent to London early in October 1837 to open negotiations with Lord Palmerston. The British were fearful that recognition would jeopardize their friendly standing with Mexico and declined to enter into formal relations; they did consent, however, to admit Texas commerce to British ports on their own terms. In France Henderson fared better. Dealing first with Count Mole, and later with his successor Marshal Soult, the Texas agent arranged a treaty by which France recognized the independence of Texas and admitted her commerce on a most favored nation basis. The treaty was signed on September 25, 1839, and Dubois de Saligny was appointed chargé d’affaires to the republic.

(20) C. T. Neu, “Annexation,” Handbook of Texas Online, accessed July 25, 2016 https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/mga02

(21) Bernard Janin Sage, P.C. Centz, The Republic of Republics, 274, (4th Ed. 1881). “Unquestionably, then, our general constitution of government is a league, or the result of a league, ‘between the states ratifying the same’ and the government provided for is necessarily an agency of the said states, and subordinate to them, for they were the sole and exclusive actors and sources of authority. Such was, as I have heretofore conclusively shown, the theory of the federalists at the making of the constitution.”

(22) Earnest Wallace, David M. Vigness & George B. Ward, Documents of Texas History 146, 148 (2nd ed., 1994)   https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/161/?q=Texas%20became%20a%20state%20of%20the%20union%20Jan.%201846

(23) Luther Martin, Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Federal Convention, 19 – 20 (1839) https://archive.org/details/secretproceeding01unit  “like individuals, each State is considered equally free and equally independent, the one having no right to exercise authority over the other, though more strong, more wealthy, or abounding with more inhabitants. That, when a number of States unite themselves under a federal government, the same principles apply to them, as when a number of individual men unite themselves under a State government. That every argument which shows one man ought not to have more votes than another, because he is wiser, stronger, or wealthier, proves that one State ought not to have more votes than another, because it is stronger, richer, or more populous.”

(24) Earnest Wallace, David M. Vigness & George B. Ward, Documents of Texas History 146, 148 (2nd ed., 1994) https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth296840/m1/159/

(25) Hunter Miller, The Treaty of Annexation – Texas, April 12, 1844, The Avalon Project, accessed July 27, 2016, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/texan05.asp

(26) “An act proposing to the State of Texas…” The 1850 Compromise. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 – 1875 Statutes at Large, 31st Congress, 1st Session, https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=009/llsl009.db&recNum=473

(27) Calhoun’s Speech on the Compromise of 1850, Congressional Globe, 31st Congress, 1st Session. Volume 22, part 1 (1850). 451-455. http://college.cengage.com/history/ayers_primary_sources/calhoun_speech_compromise_1850.htm “The legislation by which it has been effected may be classed under three heads. The first is, that series of acts by which the South has been excluded from the common territory belonging to all of the States, as the members of the Federal Union, and which have had the effect of extending vastly the portion allotted to the Northern section, and restricting within narrow limits the portion left the South; the next consists in adopting a system of revenue and disbursements, by which an undue proportion of the burden of taxation has been imposed upon the South, and an undue proportion of its proceeds appropriated to the North; and the last is a system of political measures by which the original character of the Government has been radically changed.”

(28) The Kansas-Nebraska Act, U.S. History.org, accessed July 27, 2016 http://www.ushistory.org/us/31a.asp  “The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 may have been the single most significant event leading to the Civil War. By the early 1850s settlers and entrepreneurs wanted to move into the area now known as Nebraska. However, until the area was organized as a territory, settlers would not move there because they could not legally hold a claim on the land. The southern states’ representatives in Congress were in no hurry to permit a Nebraska territory because the land lay north of the 36°30′ parallel— where slavery had been outlawed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Just when things between the north and south were in an uneasy balance, Kansas and Nebraska opened fresh wounds.” The person behind the Kansas-Nebraska Act was Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.  He said he wanted to see Nebraska made into a territory and, to win southern support, proposed a southern state inclined to support slavery. It was Kansas. Underlying it all was his desire to build a transcontinental railroad to go through Chicago. The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed each territory to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty. Kansas with slavery would violate the Missouri Compromise, which had kept the Union from falling apart for the last thirty-four years. The long-standing compromise would have to be repealed. Opposition was intense, but ultimately the bill passed in May of 1854. Territory north of the sacred 36°30′ line was now open to popular sovereignty. The North was outraged. The political effects of Douglas’ bill were enormous. Passage of the bill irrevocably split the Whig Party, one of the two major political parties in the country at the time. Every northern Whig had opposed the bill; almost every southern Whig voted for it. With the emotional issue of slavery involved, there was no way a common ground could be found. Most of the southern Whigs soon were swept into the Democratic Party. Northern Whigs reorganized themselves with other non-slavery interests to become the Republican Party, the party of Abraham Lincoln. This left the Democratic Party as the sole remaining institution that crossed sectional lines. Animosity between the North and South was again on the rise. The North felt that if the Compromise of 1820 was ignored, the Compromise of 1850 could be ignored as well. Violations of the hated Fugitive Slave Law increased.”

(29) American Secession and States Rights, 318, Law Magazine and Law Review, vol. XV, 1863. “Secession is the withdrawal of a State from the Federation, and if that State be a sovereign power, the act of secession is a sovereign act incapable, as hereafter shown, of legal limitation, and may be exercised by the sovereign power at its option. A federal compact to which sovereigns are parties may be terminated by any one of them at pleasure, and any question arising therefrom, being a question between sovereign powers, must be settled by international law, and not by the jus civile, or law of a state.”

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